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For those that don't want to dwell on the detail, there are three points in there that form the basis of the above:redzed wrote:Thank you jcflorida! You hit the nail squarely on the head! What is needed in this discussion is to put into perspective that pH is measured on a logarithmic scale, rather than a linear scale. To begin with, let`s review a number of sources, that are considered credible, as to how much sugar we need to add to a meat batter to reach the desired pH.
Let`s start with Stan Marianski , who already was quoted in this thread by jens49: About 1 g (0.1%) of dextrose per 1 kg of meat lowers pH of meat by 0.1 pH. This means that 10 g of dextrose added to meat with initial pH value of 5.9 will lower pH by one full unit to 4.9. Sugar levels of 0.5% - 0.7% are usually added for reducing pH levels to just under 5.0.
Fidel Toldra writes in Dry-Cured Meat Products:
The type of carbohydrate must be carefully chosen since it affects the rate of pH drop. It must be chosen based on the temperature of fermentation, the ability of the strain to ferment it (Table 5.1) and the totaltime of processing. The amount of carbohydrate added will affect the extent of pH drop. Approximately 1% sugar will yield a reduction of about 1 pH unit during fermentation.(p.93)
In general, the amount of sugar may vary between 0.5 and 1 % but may reach 2% in some semi-dry fermented sausages. Glucose and saccharose are metabolized quickly and ensure a rapid acidification. Lactose follows at a slower rate than glucose. Dextrines or starch are metabolized slowly and their use is recommended for long ripening sausages. (p.6)
Ockerman and Basu explain it this way: Simple sugars such as glucose (dextrose, 0.5 to 1%, a minimum of 0.75% is often recommended) which is the fermentation substrate can be readily used by all lactic acid bacteria. The quantity of sugar influences the rate and extent of acidulation, and also contributes favorably to flavour, texture, and yield properties. The amount of dextrose added, up to ~ 0.7%, will directly influence the final product pH and additional sugar will not decrease pH further since bacterial cultures can not grow in excess acid. (p.120)
Gerhard Feiner also uses the 10g equals 1 point pH drop correlation: Generally, 1 g (or 0.1%) of dextrose added per 1 kg of salami lowers the pH by 0.1 pH unit, which is equal to reducing the pH by 1 unit when adding 1%, or 10 g, of dextrose per 1 kg of salami. Therefore, 8-10 g of dextrose reduces the pH in salami from around 5.7 to around 4.6-4.8, which is frequently the
final pH desired. Similar declines in pH value can be achieved by adding 7 g of dextrose or 2-4 g of lactose. (p.125)
So the common thread in all of the above is 10g of dextrose will lower the pH by one point. But all refer to lowering the pH to 4.6 - 4.8, and not from 5.7 - 5.8 to 5.2 - 5.3. The reason for that is that we don`t need as much sugar to lower the pH from those higher levels. 1 gram of dextrose will not lower the pH by .1 and 2 grams will not lower it by .2. Being a logarithmic measurement, pH is not linear and is not directly proportional to the acid concentration. Let`s take a look at the graph in this link. While not specific to pH measurement, it demonstrates the difference between the logarithmic and linear scales:
https://www.cs.sfu.ca/~tamaras/digitalA ... thmic.html
So now we know that we can add 7-10g of dextrose when we want a to make a Scandinavian style salami or an American summer sausage. But when making a mild flavoured Mediterranean style sausage 3g usually enough with slow fermentation. And even then it sometimes can be too much as many of us have discovered with B-LC-007. While the amount of sugar will ultimately determine the acidity of the salami, there are other factors to consider. One important one is fat content. Lactic acid will not metabolize fat so salami with a high red meat content will require more sugar and less when there is a high proportion of fat. Furthermore, using the same amount of fermentable sugar, pH will drop to a lower value in a fast fermentation than in a slow fermentation using the same strain. Better control of the fermentation process and better results can be achieved by using a combination of sugars which will slow the fermentation and still lower the pH to the desired level. Gerhard Feiner explains it this way:
The decline in pH value in the product depends largely on the type and amount of sugar introduced into salami in first place. Elevated levels of sugar leads generally to a stronger acidification and therefore lower pH values. To be fermented into lactic acid, sugars such as sucrose, lactose, and maltose must be broken down first into monosaccharide. Glucose, on the other hand, can be fermented directly into lactic acid and is therefore by far the most often applied form of sugar in fermented salami. The production and ratio of d- and l-lactic acid in the salami depends on the species of lactic acid chosen as being the starter culture. Sucrose is the second fastest fermentable sugar. Maltose and lactose require a considerably longer period of time for the glycosidic bonds in their molecules to be broken until fermentable monosaccharide are produced. In essence, all lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can ferment glucose into lactic acid. Sucrose can be fermented by around 85% of LAB, maltose by around 70% of LAB and lactose by only around 55%. Only around 30% of lactic acid bacteria ferment galactose into lactic acid. (pp125-126)
Lastly, let's take a look at Marianski`s salami recipes. They all call for 2-4 grams of sugar in traditional Southern European products. Toldra also points out that even naturally present Lactobacillus spp. ferment added sugars, generally between 2 and 4 g/kg of sausage mass, and in case the pH value tends to drop to levels below 5.3-5.2.
I hope this will help everyone to get a better grasp on the fermentation process and encourage more study and experimentation.
1. ph is measured on a logarithmic scale and not on a linear scale.
2. The common guideline of using 1gram of dextrose to lower the pH by .1 applies only when you are adding 10g to the salami. You need considerably less when you want to lower the pH to 5.3 - 5.2.
3. It is good practice to use more than type of sugar when fermenting Southern European style sausages.
Last edited by redzed on Sat Jun 23, 2018 05:13, edited 1 time in total.
I started this topic with a question about my first ever attempt at dry-cured sausage. Well it's reached 70% of its green weight, and therefore being declared done. This followed Len Poli's "favorite" salami recipe except used B-LC-007 culture, hand cut the back fat and stuffed into 1-1/2 inch protein lined fibrous casing. It tastes very good for a first try, probably should not have tried to get fancy with the fat. Here's a pic:
Looks good! Even though a sausage may be "done" at 30% weight loss you may be pleasantly surprised at 35-42%, the center will not be as mushy.
Last edited by Bob K on Mon Apr 16, 2018 14:45, edited 1 time in total.
Thanks for the compliment Eric! It tasted quite good but I wasn't real pleased with the "feel" of the hand cut fat. I'll probably just grind all or most of the fat next time. Also will make several sausages and try various longer dry times as Bob K, suggested above.cajuneric wrote: How did it taste?
Thanks for the complement. As to the fat, I just do this as a hobby and for a two person household, so I don't need much. This sausage used fat cut from trimming a pork loin. Around here the butchers either offer to order a full box (~60lb) of back fat or just let their eyes glaze over. I just ordered 10 pounds from Stryker Farms. Very expensive ($5/lb), but, for me it will last a good while and the 50 bucks gets lost in the noise level when compared to all the other junk I waste money on.Kijek wrote:I'd say that looks down right delicious, great job.
That's the type and/or look I'm after, but I still can't get the back fat.