Online Workshop: Project B2 (October 2013)

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redzed
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Post by redzed » Sat May 31, 2014 06:44

I have started to prepare the chorizo. (Cubed the meat, added salt and nitrite and placed in fridge for 48 hours) But would prefer to make a Spanish style semi dry. Recipe suggestions would be appreciated. (And I have no intention of hitting 200ppm :lol:)Busy weekend coming up. In addition to the chorizo I'm making smoked venison sausage, fermenting another batch of salame di cervo, and some spicy fresh Italian. I picked up a case of boneless picnics today at at Costco. (9 picnics in total, weighing 65lbs.)
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Post by Chuckwagon » Sat May 31, 2014 10:03

Topic Split 5/31/14@0303 by CW. See the following link regarding "Jerky And Biltong" http://wedlinydomowe.pl/en/viewtopic.ph ... c&start=30
If it looks like a duck, walks like a duck, and quacks like a duck, it probably needs more time on the grill! :D
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Post by sambal badjak » Sat May 31, 2014 10:47

Sounds like I will stay away from sem-fermented for now (at least till I know a lot better what I am doing and read all extra info a couple of times)
I suppose I can make a semi-dry chorizo (if that is the right term) if I follow the same instructions as for kabanosy? I should use sheep casing to dry it quick enough isn't it, or could I use hog casing as well?

The semi fermented will come once I locate some starter culture.
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Post by Chuckwagon » Sat May 31, 2014 14:30

Sambal, there's no reason to stay away from this type of sausage. Don't fear the process and don't let it intimidate you! Shucks mam, just get a "better understandin' of the dad-gummed thang'! :roll: To better understand each type of sausage and the specific variations in making them, it would be good to review the following information again. These basics are important to fully understand each type`s distinctive characteristics. Will you read them over again? :wink:

Basically, there are only four types of sausages:

Type (1.) Fresh Sausage -"Fresh" sausage (meaning not cured), must be refrigerated and eaten within three days, or frozen for use later. Ol` timers know there is no such thing as a "secret recipe". There is however, "simply great sausage" - made using only salt, pepper, and only one or two other "signature ingredients". Add all the seasonings you wish; stuff it inside casings or mold it into patties; but use it within three days or freeze it, as it is not cured and not smoked. Refrigerate it at 38°F (3°C). This is the famous "breakfast" type sausage containing pork and sage. Other favorites include fresh Italian and fresh kielbasa, the well-known Polish sausage.
Important:
Fresh sausage is never smoked as the process cuts off oxygen, raising the risk of obligate anaerobic and microaerophile bacterial development, including clostridium botulinum!

Type (2.) Cured, Cooked, And Smoked Sausage - This sausage is cured using sodium nitrite to destroy the toxin secretions produced by obligate anaerobic clostridium botulinum bacteria, as the oxygen is cut off when the meat is placed inside casings, and again as smoke replaces oxygen inside the smokehouse. Botulism, a potentially fatal illness causing flaccid paralysis, is the effect of food poisoning caused by clostridium botulinum. In 1925, the American Meat Institute introduced the use of sodium nitrite to America`s meat products. Since that time, there has not been a single case of food poisoning in this country due to botulism in commercially prepared cured meats. Sodium nitrite has also been found to prevent the growth of Listeria monocytogenes - the bacteria responsible for Listeriosis, a very virulent disease that can potentially result in the development of meningitis in newborns.

Following drying, cured-cooked-smoked sausages are prep-cooked (and smoked if desired) to destroy any possible trichinella spiralis and retain moisture. Finish cooking them on the grill or in a pan. These are the famous Bratwurst, Bockwurst, Knockwurst, and emulsified sausages known as hot dogs or "wieners". Also included in the emulsified category are bierwurst, Vienna sausage, and bologna. Cooked Italian mortadella, salami, Chinese "lop chong", Cajun boudin (blood) sausage, smoked Polish kielbasa, and German Berliner, are other popular favorites.

Type (3.) Semi-Dry Cured Sausage - These are tangy, fermented, cured, sausages that have usually been cooked during preparation, and are served on a fancy plate at a party or simply sliced with a pocketknife while you`re in the saddle. They are usually and most often cured with nitrite (Cure #1), cooked during preparation, and dried (yielding about 75%), but not usually further cooked before serving them. (An exception is pepperoni on pizza). Favorites include varieties of summer sausage, landjaeger, kabanosy, and "slim jims".

Type (4.) Dry Cured Sausage - This is the only sausage that is not cooked during its preparation, and not usually cooked before serving or eating. It is made of raw meat and is dried rather than being cooked. Special precautions are taken with pork sausage in this category, as the destruction of possible trichinella spiralis becomes necessary. Because of the bacteria destroying processes involved, this is the only type sausage safe to eat without having been refrigerated and it is made with Cure #2 containing sodium nitrate. Favorites include salamis from virtually every country, dry-cured Mexican chorizo, Italian sopressata, many types of pepperoni, and other fermented sausages. A hygrometer, thermometer, fermentation chamber, and curing chamber, are necessary to produce dry cured sausages as well as a reasonable amount of sausage-making experience and a practical knowledge of the dry-curing procedure and a basic understanding of how bacteria affect the production of this type sausage. Beginners should have experience with all other types of sausage making before attempting to make this "fermented" and "fully dry-cured" sausage. This type of sausage is discussed in "Project A". (see index)
________________________

Sambal, as far as casings go, it is entirely your choice. Sheep casings are tender but expensive. They are very nice for semi-dry cured products if you prefer them. Many folks like collagen casing on this type of sausage. Hog casings are less expensive and for making cooked-cured-smoked type sausages or fresh sausages, they can't be beat.

Sambal... read and study all you can. Then read some more. It will all start coming together and you won't be confused at all. Until then, ask questions. Lots of folks will come to your rescue, including me whenever possible. Good luck pal.

Best Wishes,
Chuckwagon
If it looks like a duck, walks like a duck, and quacks like a duck, it probably needs more time on the grill! :D
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Post by cogboy » Sat May 31, 2014 16:25

el Ducko, looks excellent!, what type of meat was used ?
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Post by el Ducko » Sun Jun 01, 2014 05:26

cogboy wrote:el Ducko, looks excellent!, what type of meat was used ?
...for the summer sausage? See CW's recipe. It's a mix of pork and beef.

...just had some friends over to play scrabble and, of course, eat. we went through the first stick, and they insisted on taking home a second. At this rate, I'll need to make some more pretty soon. Good recipe, CW. It also seems to last a bit longer than the kabanosy, meaning people gobble it up just as fast but it's in bigger (less labor intensive) casing. Beloved Spouse is starting to worry that I don't cut the slices thin enough. ...good sign.

This (sunrise summer sausage) recipe is a definite success.
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Post by redzed » Sun Jun 01, 2014 07:16

el Ducko wrote:Beloved Spouse is starting to worry that I don't cut the slices thin enough.
Perfect disclosure that the Beloved is is not Polish (or Ukrainian). Mine being the latter would admonish me for slicing anything thinly. Took a long time to convice her that my dry cured coppa, lonzino, breasola etc. should be sliced paper thin. But I guess it's a cultural thing, whenever we have six people over for dinner we cook for twelve. My parents (both are still around) are the same, always prepare twice as much food as necessary. I think that is a phobia that is shared with people from the same background.
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Post by sambal badjak » Sun Jun 01, 2014 07:55

Redzed:
That sounds familiar, although I am not Eastern European at all. I always cook too much, just in case someone comes walking in around dinnertime... Suppose it is just the way I grew up.
Luckily I don't mind eating left-overs :mrgreen:

But salami, ham etc just need to be sliced thin, as thin as possible. It just tastes better that way
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Post by sambal badjak » Sun Jun 01, 2014 10:06

As I can`t get any starter culture at the moment I will have to use a slightly different method to make my chorizo. I really like the Spanish dry cured one, but I have no fermentation chamber and no cure #2, so that`s out as well.
Instead I want to more or less follow the Kabanosy recipe, but with the Chorizo ingredients. Please help me here and see/check if the following method would work:

800 gr pork
200 gr pork fat
1.5 - 1.95 gr cure to get to minimum 120, max 156 ppm. My cure is 8% nitrite, not 6.25%
10 gr salt
Spices (garlic, paprika, oregano, pepper and some chili). I would like to use fresh garlic and chili`s if possible
Around 50 ml or less of cold liquid (I`m thinking of using some sherry instead of vinegar or water), just to make a good bind .

I will stuff the mixture in sheep casings
Hang to dry before smoking
Smoke them at 40-50 oC for 3-4 hours . I use a cold smoke generator in combination with a hot plate and the smoke is quite thin (hence the longer times)
Then finish in the oven till about 68 oC internal temperature, or if I can get my hot plate hot enough. I might do this in the smoker.
Then hang them inside my fridge to dry till they lose about 25-35% weight (my fridge is quite humid so this will take a while)

I also want to do some in hog casings at the same time. If I do that, then I will have to finish the sheep ones off in the oven as the smoker will still be in use for the hog ones.

Anything majorly wrong with the above?
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Post by Chuckwagon » Sun Jun 01, 2014 10:40

The Duk wrote:
Good recipe, CW. It also seems to last a bit longer than the kabanosy, meaning people gobble it up just as fast but it's in bigger (less labor intensive) casing. Beloved Spouse is starting to worry that I don't cut the slices thin enough. ...good sign. This (sunrise summer sausage) recipe is a definite success.
Russ, you've outdone yourself. The stuff looks terrific and tasty. Nice going ol' pal... (you... you... quackster!) :lol:
Shucks Duck... now all you have to do is learn how to sharpen, hold, and use a knife. :mrgreen:

Nice goin' pal,
Best Wishes,
Chuckwagon
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Post by el Ducko » Sun Jun 01, 2014 17:13

redzed wrote:I have started to prepare the chorizo... But would prefer to make a Spanish style semi dry. Recipe suggestions would be appreciated....
As soon as my new book arrives, I'll post the recipe. Spanish chorizo recipes typically are fermented, dried, so this particular (semi-dry) recipe is an anomaly... but it sure looked good. "Back at ya" as soon as I can.
Duk
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Post by el Ducko » Sun Jun 01, 2014 17:19

sambal badjak wrote:Anything majorly wrong with the above?
Hey! Looks to me like it ought to taste good. ...probably not much like chorizo, but who's keeping score, anyway? (Not I.) Keep us posted! There should be some interesting variations coming out of this exercise. WooHoo! WooHoo!
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Post by sambal badjak » Mon Jun 02, 2014 06:52

Thanks mr Duck :)
Can't be worse than the chorizo I get here (bland and tasteless)
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Post by el Ducko » Tue Jun 03, 2014 00:28

el Ducko wrote:
redzed wrote:I have started to prepare the chorizo... But would prefer to make a Spanish style semi dry. Recipe suggestions would be appreciated....
As soon as my new book arrives, I'll post the recipe. Spanish chorizo recipes typically are fermented, dried, so this particular (semi-dry) recipe is an anomaly... but it sure looked good. "Back at ya" as soon as I can.
Duk
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. . . . . . . . . CHISTORRA . . . . . . . . . .
Well, the book didn`t come. Turns out that I had it sent to the wrong place. So, with apologies to Barnes & Noble, here`s a pirated excerpt from "Charcutería, The Soul of Spain" by Jeffrey Weiss, Surrey Books, p.231.

This recipe is one of very few semi-dried sausages in the Spanish "arsenal." All Spanish chorizos that I know of are of the fermented, dried type, with this one exception. Contrast this with the chorizos of the New World, which were all adaptations of the Spanish recipes due to differences in availability of ingredients. The bacteria could not be duplicated, let alone isolated and manufactured, five hundred years ago, Likewise, the role of saltpeter was not widely understood back then. (It`s even controversial today, although you and I know better. Right...?) So, most new world chorizos are fresh, rather than dried.

The author makes the comment that Chistorra is "...virtually unheard of outside of its native País Vasco and Navarra."

Here`s the ingredient list.
  • ● 1 kg pork (traditionally 40% coppa, head of pork loin, 40% pancetta, pork belly, 20% papada, pork jowl)
    ● 10 gm F-RM-52 culture (See below.)
    ● 100 gm water
    ● 10 gm minced garlic
    ● 20 gm kosher salt
    ● 5 gm dextrose
    ● 2.4 gm TCM#1 or DQ#1 curing salt mix. (if using North American cure #1, gives 118 ppm nitrite)
    ● 50 gm chilled dry white wine
    ● 50 gm water
    ● 10 gm pimentón dulce (sweet paprika)
    ● 10 gm pimentón picante (hot paprika)
    ● Sheep casing

    Butcher-Packer lists the bacterium as follows "Bactoferm (TM) F-RM-52 is a freeze-dried culture well suited for all fermented sausages where a relatively fast acidification is desired. The culture is recommended for the production of traditional North European types of fermented, dry sausages with a sourly flavor note."

    They also sell LHP, which is what CW recommends. Quoting their website: "LHP is a freeze-dried culture well suited for all fermented sausages where a relatively pronounced acidification is desired. The culture is recommended for the production of traditional fermented, dry sausages with a sourly flavor note."

    SausageMaker also sells both. What`s the difference?
    ● F-RM-52 is Lactobacillus sakei & Staphylococcus carnosus
    ● LHP is Pediococcus acidilactici & Pediococcus pentosaceus)
    We`ll ask our friendly local moderator about it.
Meanwhile, though, here`s a condensed recipe. As you can see, it`s much like the others.
● Chill meats in freezer. Combine culture and water.
● Crush together the garlic and salt to form an "ajosal" (literally "garlic-salt")
● Mix meats, ajosal, dextrose and curing salt. Set aside as you set up the chilled grinder.
● Medium grind. Chill. Re-grind. Chill.
● Combine wine, water, and pimentónes (paprikas). Chill.
● Put meat into a mixer. Start on slow. Pour wine/water/etc. in. Continue mixing 1 to 2 minutes on medium until mixture firms up (binds).
● Reduce mixer speed to low, add culture slurry, mix thoroughly. Chill.
● Stuff sheep casing, tie into 24-inch loops. Prick each sausage several times. Weigh (green weight).
● Ferment at 86 degF/30 degC and 80% humidity for at least two days. Check to make sure pH has dropped below 5.3.
[Chistorra is not traditionally smoked, but who says you can`t? Sure! Go ahead if you want. This would be the logical place in the recipe.]
Finally, dry the sausage as follows:
● Hang sausages at 60 to 70 degF, 16 to 22 degC, 65% to 75% humidity, for 5 to 10 days, until they have lost 15% of green weight.

Seeing as how this produces a cured, semi-dry sausage, Chistorra is not shelf-stable and must be stored under refrigeration, and cooked before eating. The author suggests frying the sausages in a large skillet over medium-high heat, until 150 degF IMT. You can also roast at 350 degF until same IMT.

For those who don't like "spicy" (which I take to mean "hot", eh?) sausages, use all sweet paprika. If you don't plan on smoking your recipe, try using smoked paprika in place of the sweet. ...but what ever you do, fix something that you'll enjoy.
Duk
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Post by Chuckwagon » Tue Jun 03, 2014 11:10

Regarding Bactoferm™, that woodpecking, magpie-wannabe wrote:
SausageMaker also sells both. What`s the difference?
F-RM-52 is Lactobacillus sakei & Staphylococcus carnosus
LHP is Pediococcus acidilactici & Pediococcus pentosaceus)
We`ll ask our friendly local moderator about it.
Whaaa..... where.... who..... me? Did someone say... dinner's ready? :roll:
Before starting your project, it is important to understand a few points of fermentation to help you make the choice.
1. Sugar is not normally added to this type of sausage because the more sugar that is metabolized by added lactobacillus or pediococcus, the higher the acidity in the meat, often giving sausage too much "tang" or sour taste. High-quality European salamis have a mild taste, as they contain no added sugar.
2. The speed of fermentation is directly attributed to the temperature inside the fermentation chamber. Up to a point, the higher the temperature, the faster the fermentation.
3. The degree of acidity in a sausage depends upon the amount (and type) of sugar it contains.
4. Fermentation ceases when there is no longer "free water" or more sugar available to the lactobacilli or pediococci in a sausage, or the temperature falls below 50°F. (10°C.). All bacteria require some amount of "free water".
5. The curing chamber must contain some type of small fan producing slow-moving air to inhibit the growth of slime on the surface of sausages. However, too much air speed will dry the surface too quickly, not allowing the proper amount of moisture to leave the interior of each sausage.
6. Lactobacillus and pediococcus (lactic acid bacteria) are used independently of one another as each function best at contrasting temperatures for maximum growth.

The selection of a culture is entirely up to the individual. Here is a general description of how F-RM-52 differs from LHP in its makeup.

F-RM-52 is well suited for all fermented sausages where a relatively medium to fast acidification is desired reaching 5.0 in about 4 days. The culture is recommended for the production of traditional North European types of fermented, dry sausages with a sourly flavor note (cured faster and uses mold rather than smoking).

LHP is well suited for all fermented sausages where a relatively quick, pronounced acidification is desired, reaching 5.0 in only about 2 days. The culture is recommended for the production of traditional, fermented, dry sausages, with a sour, tangy, flavor note.

Best Wishes,
Chuckwagon
If it looks like a duck, walks like a duck, and quacks like a duck, it probably needs more time on the grill! :D
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